自考英语二复习资料第四章

  自考英语二复习资料第四章
  Learn new words and phrases
  1. resolve: v 旋转,常见搭配关系为:resolve aroundsb/sth围绕…转。
  She spends all of her time resolving around herfamily.
  The earth resolves around the sun.
  2. solar: a 太阳的,日光的
  solar energy太阳能;solar system太阳系;solar month阳历月
  3. concerned: a 有关的、担心的
  Her job is something concerned with computer.
  He is concerned about the result of the exam.
  4. colored: a 有色的,对比;colorful:a 丰富多彩的
  I like orange-colored coat.
  Everybody likes colorful life.
  5. religion: n 宗教,religious:a 虔诚的;
  请对比:region: n 地区;regional: a 地区的
  6. circumstance: n 情况、境遇;
  Under no circumstances can we waste time.
  7. a great many = a number of = many很多,修饰复数名词。而a great deal of + u.n
  A great many students are absent today.
  I have wasted a great deal of time.
  8. above all: 首先、首要
  After the war, he longed above all to see his wifeand family.
  9. as a rule: 通常、一般而言
  As a rule, I only watch sports news.
  Analyze the important sentences among the text:
  1. First of all, let us consider the earth as aplanet revolving around the sun. (p1)
  译:首先,让我们把地球看作是围绕太阳运行的一颗行星。
  句子分析:first of all首先,词组:considersth as sth把…当作…,与之类似的词组还有:
  look up sth as sth; review sth as sth; treat sth assth…; revolving around the sun是现在分词短语作定语修饰a planet。
  2. These nine planets, together with the sun, make upwhat is called our solar system. (p1)
  译:这九大行星和太阳一起构成我们所说的太阳系。
  句子分析:该句主语为:These nine planets;谓语是make up;what is called our solar system是宾语;together with the sun是状语,而并非句子主语。关于该语法内容请见本讲后面的grammar---主谓一致。
  3. How this wonderful system started and what kept itworking with such wonderful accuracy is largely a mystery …… (p1)
  译:这个奇妙的星系是怎样起源的?什么使它保持极其精确的运转,很大程度上现在还是一个谜。
  句子分析:这也是一个主语很复杂的句子:How this wonderful system startedand what kept it working with such wonderful accuracy是主语,它是一个主语从句。关于该语法内容请见本讲后面的grammar---主谓一致。
  4. The total water area is about three times as large as the landarea. (p4)
  译:水域的总面积大约是陆地面积的三倍大。
  句子分析:该句的核心句型是A + be + 倍数+ as+ adj + as + B.
  e.g. The Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific Ocean.
  5. These currents are important because they affectedthe climate of the land areas close to where they flow and also because theycarry large quantities of microscope animal and vegetable life which forms alarge part of the food for fishes. (p5)
  译:这些海洋之所以重要是因为他们影响着所流经区域的附近陆地的气候,也是因为它们携带大量的微生物,植物,而这些构成鱼类食品的一大部分。
  句子分析:这是一个由because引导的主从复合句,其中closeto where they flow是定语,修饰the land areas;词组:large quantities of + c.n/u.n; which forms a large part of the foodfor fishes是定语从句修饰animal and vegetable life。其中life是指生命,不可数名词。
  6. The circumstances under which different peoplelive make a difference between the way in which they live and the way in whichwe live, and it ought to be our business to try to understand those differentcircumstances so that we can better understand people of other lands. (p8)
  译:不同民族的生活环境造就了他们和我们极为不同的生活方式,我们应该做的是去了解他们不同的生活环境以便可以更好理解其他地区的人们。
  句子分析:该句中的under which和in which又是介词+which的定语从句用法,修饰The circumstances和the way;so that引导的时目的状语从句。其中:make a diference;使…不同,产生差异;business 是指责任;
  7. Above all, we should avoid deciding what we thinkabout people different from ourselves without first having learned a great dealabout them and the kind of lives they have to live.
  译:其中很重要的实在没有对于与我们不同的人们和他们必须过的那种生活有大量的了解之前,我们应该避免对他们有先入为主的看法。
  句子分析:Above all是状语,意思是重要的,首先;we主语;should avoid谓语;deciding what we think aboutpeople different from ourselves宾语;without first…状语。different from ourselves是定语,修饰people; havinglearned动名词的完成时态,表示这个动作早于deciding发生。重要词组:above all; avoid doing; a great deal
  8. It is true to say that the more we learn aboutother people, the better we understand their ideas and as a rule, the better welike those people themselves.
  译:确实我们了解其他人越多,我们就越能理解他们的观点,通常我们就更喜欢那些人。
  句子分析:该句的主要结构为:the more…the more…the better意思:越…就越…;如:
  The longer you keep this wine, the better it tastes.
  The busier I am, the happier I am.
  Grammar 主谓一致
  主谓一致是指句中的主语和谓语在人称和数上须保持一致。我们一般遵从三个原则:
  1、 语法一致的原则:是指主语为单数或复数时,其谓语动词要与其相呼应。
  2、 意义一致的原则:指谓语动词的单复数取决于主语所表达的概念,而不取决于表面的语法标志,主要表现为某些集体名词后可跟动词单数或复数。如果这些集体名词指整体概念时,谓语动词用单数;指具体成员时用复数。
  3、 就近原则:是指谓语动词单复数取决于离它近的词语,而无须考虑其他的词。
  主谓一致的热点
  1.由 many a 或 more than + 单数名词作主语时,其谓语用单数形式。
  Many a foreigner has been to the Great Wall.
  More than one student has visited the exhibition.
  2.“……的几分之几”和“……的百分之几” 作主语时,其谓语用单数或复数取决于 of 后的名词。
  Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.
  40 percent of the students in our class are girls.
  3.“a number of + 名词复数”作主语,谓语用复数;“ the number of + 名词复数”作主语,谓语用单数。
  A number of pupils like reading picture-books.
  The number of the students in our class is 55.
  4.并列主语如果指的是同一人、同一物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,这时 and 后面的名词前没有冠词。
  The secretary of the Party branch and director ofthat factory often works with the workers.
  5.成对的名词,如bread and butter涂黄油的面包,soda and water汽水,coffee and milk加牛奶的咖啡,aim and end目的,salt and water盐开水等,虽然有and连接,但仍表单一概念,作主语时,谓语用单数。
  A knife and fork is on the table.
  6.由 and 连接的并列单数主语的前面分别有each, every或no修饰时,其谓语用单数形式。
  No student and no teacher is invited to the party.
  In our country every boy and every girl has right toreceive education.
  7.主语是单数,其后跟有together with,along with (与……一道),as well as (和;也),noless than (和……一样),rather than (而不),以及with,not, like, but, except, besides, including 等引起的短语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。
  He as well as his sister is a League member.
  8.在定语从句中主语是关系代词who, that,which,谓语动词的数应与先行词的数一致。
  I, who am your teacher, will teach you everything Iknow.
  9.主语是一些只有复数形式的名词,如clothes,trousers, glasses, compasses, scissors, shoes, socks, gloves等时,谓语用复数。但这类表示成双的东西的名词前有a pair of修饰时,谓语用单数。
  My trousers are being washed now.
  There is a pair of shoes in the box.
  10.表示度量、价格、时间的复数名词词组作主语时一般被看作一个整体,谓语用单数形式。
  Ten dollars is not enough.
  Three months has passed since he left.
  11.主语是以-ics 结尾的学科名词以及news, works (工厂)等都属形式复数,而意义单数的名词,其谓语用单数形式。另外means一词单复数同形应视具体情况而定。
  Mathematics seems to be difficult to learn.
  A new means of teaching is being used in that school.
  12.主语是用作书名、剧名、报纸名、国名等的复数名词,谓语一般用单数形式。
  TheUnited  Statesis a developed country.
  13.主语是family, team, group, crowd, class,committee等集合名词时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数形式,如指的是全体人员时,谓语用复数。
  His family are all music lovers.
  14.“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”之前有the only,the very, the等限定词和修饰语时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。
  She is the only one of these women who plays theviolin.
  15.主语是疑问代词who, what, which,不定代词all, more, most, any, none等以及名词half, part,the rest等既可表示复数意义又可表示单数意义,其谓语视情况而定。
  Half of the visitors are from Europe.
  Half of the fruit is bad.
  16.主语是表示数量的“one and a half +复数名词”,其谓语用单数形式。主语是“one or two + 复数名词”,其谓语用复数形式。
  One and a half bananas is left on the table.
  There are one or two things I‘d like to know about.
  17.the +形容词或分词作主语时,如指一类人。其谓语用复数,如指抽象概念,其谓语用单数。如:
  The rich are not always happy.
  The new is sure to replace the old.
  18.由not only … but also, neither…nor,either…or, not …but以及or连接的并列主语,谓语动词要与靠近它的主语在数上保持一致。
  Not only your father's friends but also your fatherlikes smoking.
  19.在倒装句中以及在There be …结构中,如主语是并列的,谓语动词往往和其后面的**个主语取得数上的一致。
  Where is your mother and younger sister?
  There is a pen , two pencils and five books on thedesk.
  20.动名词或动词不定式作主语,其谓语用单数形式。
  When and where to build the new factory is notdecided yet

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