成人学位英语考试常考语法:动词的时态

 考试重点:一般现在时(if 从句和as soon as 从句);进行时表将来;现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别;完成时瞬间动词以及have (has) been, have (has) gone的区别;过去完成时的时间状语;将来完成时。

  一、一般现在式

  1、表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态:常和always, usually, often, sometimes, every day, every week的等时间状语连用。

  例:He goes to work every day. 他每天去上班。

  2、表示普遍的真理。由于是众所周知的客观事实,所以一般不用时间状语。

  例:The earth is round. 地球是圆的。

  3、有些表示心理状态或感情的动词往往用一般现在时。

  例:I don't think you are right.我以为你错了。

  4、在时间、条件状语从句中表示将来的动作:常用的连词有as soon as, when, till, if.

  (1)They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they ________their exams.

  A. have finished

  B. finish

  C. finished

  D. was finishing

  (答案:B)

  (2)When the mixture ______, it will give off a powerful force.

  A. will heat

  B. will be heated

  C. is heated

  D. has heated

  (答案:C)

  二、一般过去时

  1、表示过去的动作或状态:常和过去时间状语连用。just now, last year, when I was 8years old等。

  例:You've already missed too many classes this term .You _____ two classes just last week.

  A. missed

  B. would miss

  C. had missed

  D. have missed

  (答案:A.有具体的时间状语要用过去时。)

  2、used to do sth:过去常常做…

  例:I used to take a walk in the morning.

  我过去是在早晨散步。(意味着现在不在早晨散步了。)

  3、it is high time (that)…句型中,谓语动词用过去时。

  例:Don't you think it is time you _____ smoking?

  A. give up

  B. gave up

  C. would give up

  D. should give up

  (答案:B)

  三、一般将来时

  1、will (shall) +原形动词:表示将来的动作或状态。

  例:He will come and help you. 他会来帮助你的。

  2、be going to +动词原形:表示马上就要发生的事情或打算好要做的事。

  例:Are you going to attend the lecture? 你打算去听这个演讲吗?

  3、be to +动词原形:表示安排或计划好了的动作。

  例:The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day.

  三环路将在国庆节前通车。

  4、be about to +动词原形:表示即将发生的动作。

  5、例:The lecture is about to begin.讲座即将开始。

  6、某些表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词如:go, come, start, arrive, leave 等的现在进行时可表示将来。

  (1)We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天动身去北京。

  (2)The foreign guests are arriving in Jinan tonight. 外宾今晚到达济南。

  四、过去将来时

  表示在过去预计将要发生的动作,常用于宾语从句。

  例:He wanted to know when the conference would start.

  他想知道会议何时开始。

  五、现在进行时

  1、表示此时此刻(说话时)正在进行的动作。

  例:The teacher is talking with his students. 这位老师正在同他的学生交谈。

  2、表示现阶段正在进行的动作,但此刻并不一定在进行。

  例:I am attending a conference in Beijing. 我正在北京参加一个会议。

  六、过去进行时

  1、表示在过去某一段时间正在进行的动作。常需用表示过去的时间状语或通过上下文来判断时间。

  例:He was doing his homework from seven to nine last night.

  昨天晚上七点到九点他正在做作业。

  2、when 和while 的用法

  (1)I fell and hurt myself while I _____tennis.

  A. was playing B. am playing C. play D. played

  (答案:A.连接词when 表示时间上的点,其所引导的句子用过去时,while 表示持续的一段时间,其所引导的句子用过去进行时。)

  (2)When you _____ this over with her, you should not see her any more.

  A. talk B. talked C. will talk D. talking

  (答案为B)

  (3)One of the guards _____ when the general came in, which made him very angry.

  A. has slept B. were sleeping C. slept D. was sleeping

  (答案为D)

  3、过去进行时表示过去将来的动作。现在进行时可以表示将来的动作,同样,过去进行时也可以表示从过去某时间看将来要发生的动作。

  例:He went to see Xiao Li. He was leaving early the next morning.

  他去看小李。他第二天一早就要离开此地了。

  七、现在完成时

  1、表示动作刚刚结束(常和just, now, already, yet等词连用);或表示动作的结果(一般不用时间状语)。

  (1)Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯已经关上了)

  (2)I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。(说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没有找到这支笔。)

  2、表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,并且可能会继续延续下去(常用since引导的短语或从句,或由for 引导的短语连用)。

  (1)He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿已经三十年了。(现在还住在这儿)

  (2)They've known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还继续来往)

  3、非延续性动词的完成时和it is +时间+since…(过去时)

  英语中有些动词不能延续, 因此不能和表示延续的时间状语连用。

  (1)He has _____ the army for ten years and is now an officer.

  A. gone into

  B. joined in

  C. been in

  D. come into

  (答案:C.用现在完成时表示“继续”的概念时,只能用含有持续意义的动词,不可用瞬间性动词。)

  (2)It is 3 years since I left Shanghai .我离开上海已经三年了。

  (如果是非延续动词,这时常用 it is +时间+since 的句型代替,从句用过去时态。)

  4、have (has) been to 和have (has) gone to 的区别

  have (has) been to:去过某地(表示某人的一种经历),可以和once, twice, often, never, ever 连用。

  have (has) gone to:去某地了(表示某人已经离开此地,在去某地的路途上或已在某地,所以一般来说此句型只用于第三人称),此句型不能与上述时间状语连用。

  (1)He has gone to America.(意思为他已经去了美国,现在不在此地)

  (2)He has been to America twice. 他去过美国两次。

  八、过去完成时

  1、表示在过去的某一时间或动作之前已经完成了的动作(即过去的过去)。这个过去的某一时间可用by,before等介词或连词引导的短语或一个从句来表示。

  例:About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese _____ paper.

  A. invented

  B. had invented

  C. have invented

  D. had been invented

  (答案:B)

  2、表示从过去某一时间开始,一直持续到另一个过去的时间的动作。

  例:The chemistry class _____ for five minutes when we hurried there.

  A. had been on

  B. was on

  C. has been on

  D. would be on

  (答案:A)

  3、在含有before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身可以明确表示动作发生的先后顺序,因此,主句和从句都可以用一般过去时表示,而不用过去完成时。

  例:I called him as soon as I arrived.我刚一到就给他打电话。

  4、过去完成时常用在no sooner …than…, hardly/scarcely/barely…when…,一…就…。句型之中,句子到装。

  (1)No sooner had we sat down _____ we found it was time to go.

  A. than

  B. when

  C. as

  D. while

  (答案为A)

  (2)Scarcely had he opened the door when a gust of wind blew the candle out.

  他刚打开门,蜡烛就被一阵风吹灭了。

  九、将来完成时

  表示在将来某一时间以前完成的动作。

  1、By the time John gets home, his aunt _____.

  A. will have

  B. leaves

  C. will have left

  D. is leaving

  (答案:C)

  2、I _____ writing the article by the time you get back.

  A. shall finish

  B. must have finished

  C. have finished

  D. shall have finished

  (答案:D)

  十、现在完成进行时

  表示从过去某时一直延续到现在的一个动作,这个动作一般会继续延续下去,或是到说话时结束, 但是强调到说话时为止一直在做的动作。

  例:I _____ on the door for ten minutes now without an answer.

  A. was knocking

  B. am knocking

  C. knocking

  D. have been knocking

  (答案:D)


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