2016年成人高考高起点英语复习:形容词和副词

 形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和高级。形容词和副词的构成形式基本上一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比较级的基本用法分为同级比较、比较级和高级三种形式。但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。

  形容词比较级和高级的形式

  一、形容词比较级和高级的构成

  形容词的比较级和高级变化形式规则如下

  构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 高 级

  ① 一般单音节词末尾加er 和 est strong stronger strongest

  ② 单音节词如果以e结尾,只加r 和st strange stranger strangest

  ③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,

  须先双写这个辅音字母,再加er和est sad

  big

  hot sadder

  bigger

  hotter saddest

  biggest

  hottest

  ④ 少数以y,er(或ure),ow,ble结尾的双音节词,

  末尾加er和est(以y结尾的词,如y前是辅音字母,

  把y变成i,再加er和est,以e结尾的词仍

  只加r和st) angry

  clever

  narrow

  noble angrier

  cleverer

  narrower

  nobler angrest

  cleverest

  narrowest

  noblest

  ⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词more和most different more

  different most

  different

  二、形容词比较级或高级的特殊形式:

  1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加more和most

  只能说 more beautiful而不能说beautifuller; 只能说the most beautiful而不能说beautifullest.

  但是,以形容前缀un结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如unhappy,untidy,我们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest

  2. 由ING分词和ED分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如know→known)只能加more或most来表示它们的比较级和高级

  more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。

  3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式

  absolute fatal main right universal

  chief final naked simulta- utter

  entire foremost perfect neous vital

  eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole

  excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

  三、不规则形容词的比较级和高级形式

  good

  well better best

  bad

  ill worse worst

  many

  much more most

  little

  few less least

  far farther farthest

  further furthest

  副词比较级和高级的形式

  副词比较级和高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样

  一般 副词

  hard→harder →hardest

  fast→faster →fastest

  late→later →latest

  early→earlier →earliest

  特殊 副词

  well →better →best

  much →more →most

  badly →worse →worst

  little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或est,如

  quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly

  [注]: early中的ly不是后缀,故可以把y变i再加er和est

  一、原级比较的基本用法

  1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as ”构成“原级相同”比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰

  2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果**名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as

  二、比较级

  1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方“更加…”。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、ING结构和ED结构,有时也可省去than.

  2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致

  三、高级

  1. 高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)

  2. 副词的高级与形容词高级的区别在于高级前没有定冠词the

  四、同步练习

  1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

  [A] to run for fifteen minutes

  [B] running for fifteen minutes

  [C] you run for fifteen minutes

  [D] fifteenminute walking

  解析:B为正确答案。

  2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] a problem.

  解析:B错。改为 as ,和前面的as和形容词原形curious 一起构成同程度比较。

  3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas.

  解析:B错。 改为as large.

  4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.

  [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than

  解析:C对。动词rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用as,使前后对比成分一致。

  5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.

  [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as

  解析:B为正确答案。

  6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica.

  解析:C错。应改为比较级cheaper.比较级后并不一定跟接连词than,有时在其间有名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。

  7) She is older than .

  [A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group

  [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

  解析:A为正确答案。“She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C和D不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,因为“她”也是其中一员,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。这里“She”比较的是“这组中的任何一个”,所以A对。

  8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.

  解析:B错。应改为比较级later,因此处实为与1905年相比晚15年,故应使用比较级。

  9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .

  [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us

  解析:D为正确答案。

  10) Sound travels air.

  [A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and

  [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through

  解析:A为正确答案。

  11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] .

  解析:D错。 改为his master's.

  12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

  解析:A错。 改为most.

  13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

  解析:C错。改为the, significant是多音节形容词,在此处应用高级形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的“of all… ”。

  14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

  [A] All the activities [B] The activities

  [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

  解析:C为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A和B全为名词短语,不符合条件;D为句子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有C正确,和后面的高级the most familiar前后呼应。


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英语培训
成人英语培训